# Calculus, 7th Edition + Solution

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Book Preface

The art of teaching, Mark Van Doren said, is the art of assisting discovery. I have tried to write a book that assists students in discovering calculus—both for its practical power and its surprising beauty. In this edition, as in the first six editions, I aim to convey to the student a sense of the utility of calculus and develop technical competence, but I also strive to give some appreciation for the intrinsic beauty of the subject. Newton undoubtedly experienced a sense of triumph when he made his great discoveries. I want students to share some of that excitement.

The emphasis is on understanding concepts. I think that nearly everybody agrees that this should be the primary goal of calculus instruction. In fact, the impetus for the current calculus reform movement came from the Tulane Conference in 1986, which formulated as their first recommendation:

Focus on conceptual understanding.

I have tried to implement this goal through the Rule of Three: “Topics should be presented geometrically, numerically, and algebraically.” Visualization, numerical and graphical experimentation, and other approaches have changed how we teach conceptual reasoning in fundamental ways. The Rule of Three has been expanded to become the Rule of Four by emphasizing the verbal, or descriptive, point of view as well.
In writing the seventh edition my premise has been that it is possible to achieve conceptual understanding and still retain the best traditions of traditional calculus. The book contains elements of reform, but within the context of a traditional curriculum. I have written several other calculus textbooks that might be preferable for some instructors. Most of them also come in single variable and multivariable versions.
■ Calculus, Seventh Edition, Hybrid Version, is similar to the present textbook in content and coverage except that all end-of-section exercises are available only in Enhanced WebAssign. The printed text includes all end-of-chapter review material.
■ Calculus: Early Transcendentals, Seventh Edition, is similar to the present textbook except that the exponential, logarithmic, and inverse trigonometric functions are covered in the first semester.
■ Calculus: Early Transcendentals, Seventh Edition, Hybrid Version, is similar to Calculus: Early Transcendentals, Seventh Edition, in content and coverage except that all end-of-section exercises are available only in Enhanced WebAssign. The printed text includes all end-of-chapter review material.
■ Essential Calculus is a much briefer book (800 pages), though it contains almost all of the topics in Calculus, Seventh Edition. The relative brevity is achieved through briefer exposition of some topics and putting some features on the website.
■ Essential Calculus: Early Transcendentals resembles Essential Calculus, but the exponential, logarithmic, and inverse trigonometric functions are covered in Chapter 3.
■ Calculus: Concepts and Contexts, Fourth Edition, emphasizes conceptual understanding even more strongly than this book. The coverage of topics is not encyclopedic and the material on transcendental functions and on parametric equations is woven throughout the book instead of being treated in separate chapters.
■ Calculus: Early Vectors introduces vectors and vector functions in the first semester and integrates them throughout the book. It is suitable for students taking Engineering and Physics courses concurrently with calculus.
■ Brief Applied Calculus is intended for students in business, the social sciences, and the life sciences.