Introduction to Comparative Politics
The prefaces to several previous editions of Introduction to Comparative Politics (ICP) observed that the times, they are a changing. We refl ect on how we began previous editions:
• “Politics throughout the world seems more troubled today than even a few years ago, when celebrations around the globe ushered in the new millennium.”
—Introduction to Comparative Politics, 3rd edition. © 2004.
• In recent years the “world of politics was as turbulent as at any time in recent memory, with clear-cut trends more elusive than ever.”
—Introduction to Comparative Politics, 4th edition. © 2007.
• “[We] have witnessed as much—or more—turmoil and uncertainty as the preceding years.”
—Introduction to Comparative Politics, 5th edition. © 2010.
The sixth edition of ICP is far from an exception to this rule. It has been published soon after prodemocracy movements overthrew decades-old dictatorships in Tunisia and Egypt, and repressive regimes unleashed deadly force against similar movements in Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Libya, Syria, and Yemen.
It is hard to imagine that worldwide attention, riveted on the vast wave of popular movements in North Africa and the Middle East, could be diverted. Yet so it was, when an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale rocked Japan’s main island and provoked a tsunami that fl attened entire villages, killed thousands, and heavily damaged a set of nuclear facilities. Japan and countries throughout the world will grapple with the social, economic, and political implications of the disaster for decades to come. ICP6 does not try to emulate the coverage of fast-breaking daily events by CNN, Fox News, and Twitter. Its mission is to provide students with a clear and comprehensive guide to these unsettled political times through comparative analysis.
Country-by-Country Approach and Thematic Framework
The methods of comparative analysis come alive as students examine similarities and differences among countries and within and between political systems. Our thematic approach facilitates disciplined analysis of political challenges and changing agendas within each country. Like previous editions of Introduction to Comparative Politics, this edition (ICP6) employs a country-by-country approach structured around four core themes:
1. A World of States focuses on the importance of state formation, the internal organization of the state, and the impact of the interstate system on political development. We emphasize the interaction of globalization and state power.
2. Governing the Economy analyzes state strategies for promoting economic development and competitiveness, emphasizes the crucial role of economic performance in determining a state’s political legitimacy, and stresses the effects of economic globalization on domestic politics.
3. The Democratic Idea explores the challenges posed to the state by citizens’ demands for greater participation and infl uence in both democracies and authoritarian regimes, and discusses the inevitable gap between the promise of democracy and its imperfect fulfi llment.
4. The Politics of Collective Identities considers the political consequences of the complex interplay among class, race, ethnicity, gender, religion, and nationality.
Our approach to comparative politics emphasizes the presentation of each country’s politics using these four themes within a context shaped by globalization. The framework strikes a balance between the richness of each country’s distinctive pattern of political development and cross-country comparative analysis.
PART I INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1 Introducing Comparative Politics 2
PART II CONSOLIDATED DEMOCRACIES
CHAPTER 2 Britain 44
CHAPTER 3 France 90
CHAPTER 4 Germany 138
CHAPTER 5 Japan 188
CHAPTER 6 India 236
CHAPTER 7 The United States 282
PART III TRANSITIONAL DEMOCRACIES
CHAPTER 8 The Russian Federation 330
CHAPTER 9 Brazil 384
CHAPTER 10 Mexico 432
CHAPTER 11 South Africa 478
CHAPTER 12 Nigeria 522
PART IV AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES
CHAPTER 13 Iran 576
CHAPTER 14 China 620
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