The Chemistry of Textile Fibres 2nd Edition
Since the first edition of the book was published there have been a number of developments brought about through technological advances and the impact of legislation. In this second edition we have tried to address the advances that have occurred in textile fibre chemistry over the last four years, though it is important to recognise that we have only been able to describe this important sector of the chemical industry at the time of writing since fibre manufacture is by no means a static industry. Our guiding principles for this second edition have been:
●● To add new sections to chapters where we felt there was an omission.
●● To highlight the trend towards the synthesis, from renewable resources, of monomers for making synthetic fibres.
●● To indicate the influence of legislation, such as REACH and the concerns of environmental organisations on the use of chemicals in the textile industry.
●● To indicate key achievements of research in fibre chemistry, recognising that not all are yet commercially viable.
●● To revise and where necessary expand the suggested reading lists.
We have updated the fibre production statistics in Chapter 1 and expanded our commentary on the worldwide production situation.
We have increased substantially the section on “Suggested further reading” to give details of the various organisations that exist in support of the industry. In Chapter 2 we have included a new section on GM cotton, as well as making a number of other minor additions. The main change to Chapter 3 is a new section on spider silk. Changes to Chapter 4 include references to new viscose fibre types and expanded sections on cuprammonium rayon, casein and soyabean fibres. A new introductory section has been added to Chapter 5. This chapter includes new sections on microfibres and bicomponent fibres, but also addresses the trend towards synthesising monomers for synthetic fibres from renewable resources. Only minor additions and amendments have been necessary in Chapters 6 and 7, but Chapter 8 has been expanded considerably to address concerns about the use of a particular fire-retardant agent and fluorinated hydrocarbons for conferring water repellency. It also includes new sections on anti-microbial and UV protective treatments, together with a new section on sol–gel chemistry, an important emerging type of chemical finish for fibres. We made the decision to delete Chapter 9 of the 1st edition since its focus was more on textile technology than the chemistry of fibres. It has been replaced by a new Chapter 9, which focuses on the chemistry of functional fibres and fabrics, a topic of considerable research interest because of the high added-value innovative products developed.
As mentioned in the Preface of the first edition, we intended that this book would be at a level suitable for students of higher and advanced level school chemistry courses and first year undergraduate courses at university. In describing some of the research that has been conducted in textile chemistry and indicating some research papers published in journals, we are conscious that in this second edition we may well have included topics that are beyond the level of school chemistry courses and probably meet more the needs of all years of undergraduate courses on textile chemistry. Nevertheless, we hope that students of school chemistry courses will still find the book readable and interesting, especially since we have tried to demonstrate how textile fibre chemistry is the subject of much exciting and innovative research. Although we have described some of the research that is being carried out, we have not covered it in great depth, so the advanced reader is encouraged to consult books and journal articles written for the specialist market.
In writing this second edition, we gratefully acknowledge the help and assistance of the librarians at the Scottish Borders Campus of Heriot-Watt University, Mr Peter Sandison and Mr Jamie McIntyre. Weare also grateful to a number of research workers who have willingly provided images, most notably Dr Philipp Wimmer of Kelheim Fibres GmbH, Germany (Figures 4.2 and 4.5), Dr Bharat Bhushan of Ohio State University (Figure 8.12), Prof Stefan Seeger and Dr Georg Artus of Zurich University (Figure 8.13), Dr Phillip Gibson of the US Army, Natick (Figure 9.3), Prof Bengt HagstrÖm, Swerea IVF AB, Sweden and Dr Frank Meister, TITK, Germany (Figure 9.7). We are also grateful to Dr Fern Kelly of Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles (ENSAIT) in Roubaix, France and Prof. Chokri Cherif of Technical University of Dresden for information about their research. Finally, we would like to thank Dr Daan van Es of Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research in the Netherlands for kindly providing technical information about polyethylene furanoate (PEF) polymers.
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